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The italian journal of social policies

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The New Italian Emigration

Innovation and stability

Description

We have known for years that there has been a resumption of Italian emigration abroad. To a great extent this emigration is due to the crisis and the recession, but its dimensions and characteristics seem to justify the theory of a new cycle of Italian emigration. The analyses carried out from various perspectives in the articles in the Tema section try to understand the phenomenon and allow us to define the main figures among the new emigrants, bringing out the significantly new factors compared with the emigration in previous periods. What has changed is where they come from and the context of where they are going to, as well as the structure of the labour market in the main countries of immigration, while the social condition of the new emigrants shows a continuum with the two extremes of highly qualified individuals and those with a low educational level. The Attualità section concentrates on Social Inclusion Income and anti-poverty measures, examining both the challenges and the critical factors connected with the proposals. There follows the Debate on Europe, crisis and social model (Moreno, 2017) and a focus on lack of security and populism ten years after the great crisis.

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THEME: A New Cycle in Italian Emigration

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The Resumption of Italian Emigration and its Figures: New Features and Old
The time series of departures of Italians abroad in the last two decades clearly shows that Italian emigration is once again increasing. During the decade of the economic crisis it took on the characteristics of an emerging phenomenon. Its measurement is one of the key issues in the analysis of the new Italian emigration. This paper aims to address this problem by using statistics on additions to and exits from the municipal register records and Aire data. This information is then compared with data provided by the statistics of the countries of destination on the entry and residence of foreigners.
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The Effect of the New Migrations inside Europe on the Jobs Marke
The new migrants are entering a jobs market that has been transformed as a result of the migration flows of recent decades. The main European countries are currently seeking to de-regulate and make more precarious the labour force. New positions are typically ones of under-employment and there is widespread use of atypical kinds of contract: in Germany the new job-holders correspond almost perfectly with the increase in part-time work, in France most of them are on fixed-term contracts, and in the Uk zero-hours contracts have increased in some sectors. The article aims to go beyond the interpretation of the present internal migrations in the Eu as a cause of social dumping. It suggests rather that the gap between those with more precarious jobs and those with greater guarantees is a gap internal to those countries, although it is diminishing. The case of the new Italian emigrants brings out how the changes in the jobs market in the last decade have had an effect on their finding employment. The figures show a rapid increase in Italians with jobs, whether standard or precarious and atypical.
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Brexit and «New Generation» Italian Immigration in the Uk
The article analyses recent Italian immigration to the Uk. These flows, which identify a «new generation» of immigration, refer to the period from the early years of the century until the present. This period is characterised by sharp changes in relation to the economic, political and social context that contributed to the unexpected vote in favour of Brexit in 2016. An analysis of the Brexit vote, and in particular of some of the conditions which influential in this respect – migration policies as well as structure and level of labour market regulation – provide the necessary context to explain the quantitative and qualitative changes of Italian immigration towards the Uk.
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The New Italian Migrations in France
The new Italian emigrants have lost the distinctive features of the past: certain specific territorial origins, typically factory and farm workers of low educational attainments, and gathering in regional if not local Italian communities. The «mobile citizens» of today have very different characteristics and very different needs. The phenomenon of the new migration is often emphasized and «controlled» at the same time. The stereotype of a «brain drain» puts in the shade the less interesting «labour drain», though it is the main component of the present-day phenomenon. The article begins by presenting some representative stories and dwells on questions that most concern the new migrants: jobs, housing and the health service.
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Southern Italian Emigration
The new migration involves every region of Italy, making Lombardy paradoxically the main region for emigration abroad for many years of the present decade. This is due to the complexity of the situation of those concerned and the various reasons for their departure. But the regions of Southern Italy are losing their population not only through emigration abroad, but also migration inside Italy, which has also continued during the period of the crisis and stagnation. Indeed, the exodus of young Italians from the South is an attempt to escape the crisis. It is having extremely serious structural effects, both demographically and at the level of human capital, and may lead to a serious shortfall of useful human resources in the South, with devastating and possibly irreversible effects for the local economy. The Svimez Report had already commented in 2011 on a probable demographic tsunami, consisting of a rapid ageing process for the population resident in the South, which stands to lose more than 2,000,000 people under the age of thirty, who are that part of the population that is not only youngest, but also most fertile.
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Italian Scientists Abroad: The Numbers behind the Words
What are the conditions for «doing research» abroad and how can research work beyond the national borders contribute to improving the scientific research system in Italy? The present contribution consists of two main parts. In the first, the results of a survey of Italian scientists in Europe (528 respondents, mainly mathematicians, engineers and physicists) are discussed. In the second part, 83 in-depth interviews conducted with Italian scientists working in Europe are subjected to a statistical analysis of textual-data approaches to interpret the relevant aspects of the scientists’ experiences. The results show the most favourable characteristics and conditions for doing research in Europe and criticize the Italian academic scientific research system, as well as making proposals to improve it. The findings add complexity to the brain-drain debate and confirm the potentiality of qualiquantitative approaches to reach a deeper understanding of social phenomena.
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The Mobility of Erasmus Students: European Identity and New Emigration
Thirty years after the European Erasmus programme was initiated, this article concentrates on the dynamics and destinations of the students who have taken part in it. It begins by analysing the student mobility linked to the European scheme, bringing our how it has become both a structural part of the education of thousands of European students, as well as one of the most significant components of the intra-European mobility of the population of the Eu. There is no doubt that this programme has been, and still is in its new form of Erassmus +, a model for promoting European identity and acquiring linguistic, social and cultural expertise in the host countries. At the same time, particularly for students from countries of the Mediterranean area, the scheme has also been a trampoline for emigration towards markets that can absorb labour supply. As has been documented in many recent studies and enquiries, the networks of relations and the expertise acquired in study abroad have proved to be an indispensable preparation, qualifying those taking part for emigration when their studies have ended.
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I’m leaving: Emigration Abroad of Young Italian Graduates
One of the most serious consequences for Italy of the economic and social crisis 2008-2015 has been the exponential growth of emigration of young Italian knowledge workers. The paper analyses this phenomenon both in terms of the size of this migration and of estimating the economic costs for Italian society as a whole. As this situation is likely to have permanent consequences on Italian society by reducing the most highly-qualified human capital in the country, the paper also explores some points regarding potential policies for encouraging the return of young expatriate knowledge workers.
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TOPICAL QUESTION: Inclusion Income: does it combat poverty?

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The Challenges of Inclusion Income
Inclusion Income is a crucial provision for Italy, but we are still a long way from achieving it, if we want to prevent the reform remaining incomplete. First of all, there is a problem of resources, which are still insufficient to cover all those in a state of absolute poverty and make the intervention adequate, both in terms of the level of the contributions to beneficiaries and the availability of services. Indeed, the benefits are insufficient to raise the beneficiaries above the poverty level (anti-poverty measures are evaluated in terms of the distance between the poverty threshold and disposable income) and properly satisfy primary needs. Greater attention also needs to be given to social and employment inclusion, ensuring proper financing, partly to strengthen the technical-professional expertise in charge if these processes.
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Is Inclusion Income a Way of Combating poverty?
There is growing inequality and welfare in practice cannot contain it. The debate in the last five years has concentrated on monetary transfers and their capacity to reduce poverty. The results have not met expectations, and instead of reducing it, has encouraged a dependence culture. This is a serious critical feature of Italian welfare, despite the increase in resources for these purposes. There is a prevailing methodological materialism, made up of numerous transfers and few services, in a chronic deficit of professional infrastructures and capacities for helping people to help themselves. Whether an Inclusion Income can invert this trend is still not clear, but meanwhile we are aware of all the risks of similar types of practice. The new measure also shares some of these critical features and contribute to duplicating responses that are already overlapping, sometimes to the advantage of those who do not need them. Analyses carried out in the regions that have already tried similar actions are not encouraging. That is why we need independent and rigorous controls on the results of the process, the outcome and the social impact.
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Towards a New Italian Model of Poverty?
The number of Italians living in absolute poverty grew by 142% between 2005 and 2015, rising from 3,3% (1,900,000) to 7.6% of the total (4,600,000), with a parallel increase of families involved from 3,6% (820,000) to 6,1% (1,580,000). The extent of the quantitative growth in poverty, however, risks distracting us from what is the greatest novelty in the last ten years: the distributive changes that accompanied the rise in overall numbers. In a medium/long-term perspective, there emerge profound changes not only in the incidence of absolute poverty, but also in its distribution among the various social groups concerned and, consequently, in the overall composition of the population affected. In spite of this, there are still – so far as the present writer is aware – no published research analysing these changes. This article aims to fill this gap.
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DEBATE: Crisis and Social Model in Europe

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Is Europe still Social?
The 2008 crisis and the new economic governance have fostered significant reforms in the welfare systems of Eu countries. Luis Moreno wonders whether the new lines defined at international level between national governments and European institutions, involve paradigm changes with respect to the welfare model defined in post-war Constitutions, in Italy and Spain in particular.
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Notes for the Construction of a European Social Model
The European Social Model (Esm) is an ambitious and necessary project for the construction of a fairer and more inclusive Europe. This article focuses on several issues concerning the technical sustainability and the political opportunity of this «supranational welfare» for the near future. After some reflections on the concept of citizenship and the unstable relationship between society and the market in those countries of advanced capitalism, we outline the Esm as a key institutional tool for the European Union to reduce the deep inequalities caused by the financial crisis of 2008 and to promote social cohesion and solidarity between all European citizens.
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Features

Social Question and Neo-populism
Insecurity and Populism. Ten Years of the Great Crisis
This article focuses on the connection between social, economic, and political crises, and the populist phenomenon. The various dimensions of the feeling of insecurity are connected to the multifaceted nature of that crisis, and they all converge into one great crisis, as defined in this article. The great crisis, in turn, makes citizens increasingly «critical» of democratic politics, its rituals and institutional actors. This dynamic favours a populist discourse, which plays on the slowness of governments and parties to respond to social demands and global issues. On the other hand, populism fosters and capitalizes on the growing social distrust of the institutions and actors of representative democracy. The account provided by the authors, using both literature and survey data, suggests that the Gfc (Global financial crisis) is an intervening variable and not the cause. It has accelerated and, in some senses, exacerbated a process of weakening relations between society and representative politics that had already been developing.
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RPS 4 2017

RPS 4 2017