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RPS 1 2018

Il testo è la sintesi dell’articolo pubblicato nella sezione Tema del n. 1 2018 di Rps e scaricabile dagli abbonati nella versione integrale al link:

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Europe

The Role of the Social Partners in European Pension Reforms: Past and Present

Articolo scritto da:

The social partners, both employers and trade unions, played a substantial role in the «old politics» expanding pension systems in Europe; they are still active in the «new politics» of pension reforms. Given the electoral impact and political veto points, governments may seek to overcome reform blockage in political decision-making and implementation by social consensus seeking. Besides political interest politics, various modes of social governance are discussed: institutional consultation of the social groups, tripartite concertation between governments and the social partners, institutionalized forms of self-administration of pension insurance, and self-regulation via negotiated occupational pensions.only subscribers can see the full article

Institutional Change and Gradual Development in Obligatory Insurance for Long-Term Care in Germany

Articolo scritto da:

The introduction of Long-term Care Insurance in 1995 in Germany brought a fundamental change in long-term care policies related to social rights, mode of funding and care provision. Before the introduction, long-term care was defined as a responsibility of (mainly female) family members with public support means-tested. The essay examines the principles of Long-term Care Insurance and some significant adaptations since then. It draws on a new-institutionalism approach and analyses the role of actors, their interests and ideas as well as institutional conditions of the reform process. In addition, it considers the reform’s effects. The research reveals both processes of fundamental change and gradual adaptations.only subscribers can see the full article
Keywords: Europe :: Germany :: elderly care :: Long-term Care :: Aging ::

Work and Part-Time Jobs. A European Framework of Supply and Preferences

Articolo scritto da:

in the issue
Times and Hours
The article takes into consideration the part-time arrangement not as a measure to increase occupation but as a central aspect of a «multi-active» society where the individual, if s/he chooses, can dedicate more time to other spheres of life. Here part-time is perceived as a way to valorise work activities outside the market in a frame of the partial reduction of working time dedicated. By analysing the European panorama on part-time, the following classification of countries is used - Northern, Continental, Mediterranean - according to the extent of part-time, type, age distribution, part-time rates as well as the motivations which induce workers to opt for this work modality and related rights. It seems that the part-time arrangement, when well pro-tected, is a good conciliation tool between work and market, training for the young, family commitments for women, gradual withdrawal for the elderly (to do more leisure or voluntary activities).only subscribers can see the full article

Redesigning Citizenship Regimes after Neoliberalism. Moving towards Social Investment

Articolo scritto da:

This article documents the ways in which a concept which had characterised the high neo-liberal period of the World Bank - social investment - and which plays on the discourse of capitalism, was reworked in the mid-1990s to become, among other things, a set of policies and programmes focused on fighting poverty and improving income security in Europe and Latin America. It documents in particular the adjustments on three dimensions of the citizenship regimes in these two regions. This comparison is based on the observation that, while often having quite different political histories, the Americas and Europe nonetheless share some important similarities in social citizenship practices. Currently, some countries in Latin America have on-going experiments with social citizenship that are not that different several European countries’ choices about how to design a citizenship regime for after neoliberalism. only subscribers can see the full article

The Reform Process in Long-Term Care Policies in Countries of the European Union: An Attempt at Interpretation

Articolo scritto da:

The essay offers a general interpretation of the changes taking place in long term care (Ltc) policies in the last 20 years in Europe. More specifically, the essay provides three general conclusions. The first concerns the general impact of the reform of Ltc policies in terms of retrenchment, restructuring or expansion. The second is related to the functioning of the political mechanisms and institutional processes through which change has been made possible, notwithstanding financial pressures and strong institutional resistance to innovation. The third is the impact of change on workers and providers in the Ltc field.only subscribers can see the full article

Paths for Change in Long-Term Care Policies in Denmark

Articolo scritto da:

Among the Nordic countries (and together with Norway) long term care policies in Denmark are the most universalist in terms of coverage; further, in contrast to the other Nordic countries, Denmark combines institutional change from below (non-legislative changes) with institutional change from above (legislative changes). The paper describes these changes, that have been oriented towards a marketisation and a better tailoring of services to individual needs. Taken together these lead to contradictory developments towards both standardisation and flexibility. The analysis will show how innovation has two, potentially contradictory sides: it is concerned with both «securing » and «extending» the welfare rights of citizens and therefore encompasses both measures of control and measures of free choice.only subscribers can see the full article
Keywords: Europe :: elderly care :: Long-term Care :: Aging :: Denmark ::

A Comparison of Redistribution and Welfare in Europe and the Us

Articolo scritto da:

Considering that social services could be provided either by the public sector and private bodies, the dimensions of the Welfare State are similar in Europe and in the Usa. However, the breakdown in spending is different: more is spent on health in the Usa whereas assistance and social security are the priorities in Europe. The redistributive effects of the two systems are difficult to assess given that each item of social spending presents specific features. It must, however, be stressed that the dimensions of the social state are an inadequate criterion to compare the level of redistribution of social spending.only subscribers can see the full article

Europe. Work-life Balance in the Consultation Process of the European Social Partners

Articolo scritto da:

The article examines how the need to successfully reconcile paid work, family responsibilities and private life, an idea summed up in the term «work-life balance», is now part of the political and union debate and has become one of the aims of the European social agenda. The analysis concentrates mainly on the European unions and seeks to bring out the distance between the fine words of community law and the actual state of things. It examines in particular the first two stages of the consultation process of the European social partners, launched by the Commission in 2006 and still developing at the time of writing. The article concludes with a comparison between the polices passed in the countries of northern and southern Europe.only subscribers can see the full article
Keywords: Europe :: trade union :: reconciliation ::

The French Path towards a Policy for Long-Term Care: Specific Features, Nature of the Process and Subjects Involved

Articolo scritto da:

France is characterized by the introduction of a new Ltc program (the Apa, Allocation Personaliseè a l’Autonomie) since 2002, providing a combination of service and cash to the dependent elderly population. The paper describes the factors leading to this reform and the political process that has characterized its approval and following implementation. In recent years there have been new changes, potentially leading to stronger recognition and public support of private long term care insurance. This turn towards the market will be analytically discussed, showing the political process and the actors that have been involved, and looking at the possible social and institutional impacts of the marketization of long term care.only subscribers can see the full article
Keywords: Europe :: France :: elderly care :: Long-term Care :: Aging ::

Description

Articolo scritto da:

Every day it becomes clear that the limits to public-sector growth in the social services and the ongoing socio-demographic changes over the last twenty years are forcing us to reconsider, at both national and European level, feasible ways of tackling the care needs of the elderly. The ageing of the population has brought out two main problems: on the one hand, there has been an increase in the number of old people who require public assistance; on the other, there has also been an increase in the financial pressure imposed on traditional intervention programmes due to the additional social demand and to the strain it puts on public resources. It is this contradictory combination of factors that has led to both the difficulties that the various welfare systems find in carrying out policy reform for long-term care that can deal with this new social emergency, and the overall stop-go, if not inertia, of the ongoing processes of institutional reform in the various European countries. As this research shows, these processes are the prevailing feature, along with the widespread recalibrating of existing policies and interventions, both in terms of their structure and what is on offer.only subscribers can see the full article