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RPS 1 2017

In uscita ad aprile il numero 1/2017: Il servizio sociale italiano nell’ambito dell’attuale sistema di welfare sarà il focus della sezione monografica del n.

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flexibility

Europe. Time Renconcilement Models

Articolo scritto da:

in the issue
Times and Hours
The comparative analysis of reconcilement policies promoted by European countries highlight the presence of various intervention models. The data suggest diversifying reconcilement tools to meet the needs expressed by increasingly more heterogeneous family and life models but also to support the centrality of system actions aimed at the provision of public care services with flexible times, of high quality and contained costs which contribute to overturning the gender division of care. Public intervention also allows the reduction of costs which would otherwise be sustained by enterprises thus reducing poverty and social inequalities in the long term as well as increasing productivity given the positive effects on learning capacity and living conditions of the new generations.only subscribers can see the full article

Young People and the Labour Market in Italy

Articolo scritto da:

in the issue
The Dispossessed
Young people find it much more difficult to enter the labour market in Italy than elsewhere. The long transition from school to work is accompanied by low employment levels, high unemployment, and a growing concentration of temporary jobs, with the risk of being permanently without tenure. The reforms of the last few decades have increased the flexibility of the labour market, above all encouraging short-term contracts, so as to make it easier for young people to find work. This has led to an increase in segmentation, with young people concentrated in temporary jobs. High youth unemployment was reduced up until the crisis, but at the cost of increased job uncertainty. The impact of the crisis on young people was particularly dramatic, because of the large number of short-term contracts. The worsening of the employment picture has eroded the feeble progress registered before the crisis, emphasizing the existing critical factors. Given the uncertain prospects of growth, the persisting difficulties young people experience in the transition to work risk producing worrying longterm effects.only subscribers can see the full article

The Netherlands. Part-Time and Reconcilement Policies

Articolo scritto da:

in the issue
Times and Hours
Part-time work is a widespread phenomenon in the Netherlands, es-pecially among women. Not only are part-time rates higher than in any other country, Dutch workers also report that they work part-time because they did not look for a full-time job. This paper de-scribes and explains the growth of part-time work in the Netherlands as a largely spontaneous process, triggered by the late but rapid en-trance of women in the labour market, the initially hesitant but in the end successful facilitation of part-time employment by labour market institutions and policies and, finally, an adjustment of the legal and tax system erasing much of the unequal treatment aspects of part-time work. Furthermore the paper provides an outlook for the Dutch one-and-a-half earner economy, comparing the Netherlands with the Uk and Germany, and poses the question why Dutch women so far did not seek the road towards full-time employment, the option preferred by their Scandinavian sisters.only subscribers can see the full article

Work and Part-Time Jobs. A European Framework of Supply and Preferences

Articolo scritto da:

in the issue
Times and Hours
The article takes into consideration the part-time arrangement not as a measure to increase occupation but as a central aspect of a «multi-active» society where the individual, if s/he chooses, can dedicate more time to other spheres of life. Here part-time is perceived as a way to valorise work activities outside the market in a frame of the partial reduction of working time dedicated. By analysing the European panorama on part-time, the following classification of countries is used - Northern, Continental, Mediterranean - according to the extent of part-time, type, age distribution, part-time rates as well as the motivations which induce workers to opt for this work modality and related rights. It seems that the part-time arrangement, when well pro-tected, is a good conciliation tool between work and market, training for the young, family commitments for women, gradual withdrawal for the elderly (to do more leisure or voluntary activities).only subscribers can see the full article

The Implications of the Jobs Act on the Market and Labour relations

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After a brief examination of the structure, content and objectives of the recent labour market reform, known as the Jobs Act, the authors analyse its implications for market and labour relations in Italy. They conclude that, though the possibility of attaining the announced goal of increasing employment through more flexibility may be questioned, there is certainly no doubt that the Jobs Act has had a regressive effect on Italian labour law, depriving it of the rules for workers’ freedom and dignity provided by the «Workers’ Statute».only subscribers can see the full article
Keywords: labour law :: Jobs Act :: flexibility ::

The French Act on the Reduction Of Working Time and Reasons Behinds its Failure

Articolo scritto da:

in the issue
Times and Hours
Working time has always been considered in France to be an area of responsibility for the State. The Acts on the 35-hour working week come therefore from a long tradition of State intervention to regulate employment and working conditions. This way of ruling working time is not found in other European countries. This pape presents the French specificity: a work sharing logic supported by the State. The aim at generating employment through a legal reduction of working time brought the government to draw up an extremely complex set of Acts. They are not restricted to defining legal work duration; they also reduce social contributions and determine a precise framework to negotiate collective agreements. Most of the evaluations of the consequences of the 35-hour Act show that its effects on employment are limited, that social relations have not improved and that inequalities among employees have worsened. The French way of reforming rests on the belief in the absolute power of public action and in the rationality of the State, and on a mistrust of social forces.only subscribers can see the full article

Italy. Phases and Typologies of Reconcilement Policies

Articolo scritto da:

in the issue
Times and Hours
Starting out from the premise that in order to encourage work/family reconcilement, it’s important to intervene at various levels - the sharing and redistribution of care work, market-targeted work modalities, organisation of local services, times and usability of life spaces - the paper examines the Italian case, demonstrating how reconcilement policies have been developed and consolidated due to pressure from the Eu and the importance of a nucleus of norms, the most important being law 53/2000. The variety of experiences conducted are traced back to three successive intervention phases and a type of reconcilement «measures» integrated by some proposals. Lastly, some critical aspects are highlighted for the development of these policies and the positive role of organisational innovation prospected and the resort to more advanced models for flexibility management. only subscribers can see the full article

Working Time in Italian Industrial Relations. An Historical Overview

Articolo scritto da:

in the issue
Times and Hours
The issue of working time and hours has always been at the forefront of Italian collective bargaining in Italy. The paper gives an overview of its evolution, highlighting how most objectives for the containment and duration of hours to the advantage of work has progressively shifted towards objectives for the negotiation and control of flexibilisation of working time requested by the companies. Recognition of this situation has indeed brought to the fore critical aspects, but also proposals that point out how working time bargaining is in Italy one of the most innovative areas of collective bargaining.only subscribers can see the full article

Germany. Ig Metall and the Arduous Search for a Balance between Salaries and Working Time

Articolo scritto da:

in the issue
Times and Hours
The article analyses developments in German union policy in the metal sector in the light of economic and contextual changes which characterised the 90s and the effects produced on industrial relations. The consequences of the partial loss of union power have become evident with the rise in derogations on the collective agreements and in the impossibility of their «automatic» application in the enterprises. The most recent example of this deterioration is represented by the signing of the collective contract called «Pforzheim» in 2004, made possible by the considerable pressure posed by the possibility to export production sites thereby saddling with productivity and competitively costs , not only in terms of wages but also working times.only subscribers can see the full article

Working Time. Community Norms and Legislation in European States

Articolo scritto da:

in the issue
Times and Hours
The paper examines legislation on working time in Europe, with particular reference to Community norms and their recent modification proposals, and to some countries in the European Union (Italy, France, Spain, Portugal, Germany and Uk). The analysis conducted highlights, on the one hand, the inherent weaknesses of the former especially regarding worker protection standards and the possibility of derogation. On the other hand, after having examined the fundamental institutes of national norms, the author concludes by noting the weak influence of Eu norms on legislation in member states, indeed they seem to undermine current protection measures.only subscribers can see the full article