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immigration

Migration in Europe - Current Issues and Trends

Articolo scritto da:

in the issue
Migration
The article describes the current demographic situation and migration trends in Europe. It discusses the conceptual and empirical gaps resulting from the use of different criteria to categorize foreigners. The recent and foreseeable impact of Eu enlargement and the potential for further East-West migration within Europe are considered, along with the growing level of immigration to Southern Europe. The article draws attention to the fact that integration of non-Eu nationals has become a key subject of concern across Europe, and national policies are being adapted in response: with regard to integration the article examines the evolutions in Austria, Germany and the Netherlands. Lastly, common Eu policies on migration and frontier management, asylum seekers and family reunification are also discussed.only subscribers can see the full article

Re-institutionalization? Immigration

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The economic, social and cultural crisis that is conditioning negatively relations between people and an open attitude to diversity, along with the political delay in tackling immigration pragmatically and not as an emergency, are driving significant numbers of migrants into conditions of marginalization and institutionalization. Methodological approaches that lead to local policies that resist the definitive stabilization of situations of exclusion for the migrant population see inclusion policies as a strategy for improving the life of the whole community and suggest interventions on various levels, from actions that would affect the social representation of immigration to more integrated services, which are necessary if we are to fully grasp their complexity.only subscribers can see the full article

Immigration, multiculturalism and welfare state

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It is widely believed that a viable welfare state depends on achieving and maintaining a high level of solidarity amongst citizens, and that this solidarity is eroded by increasing levels of ethnic and racial diversity due to immigration. If true, there is a trade-off between a more open and accommodating approach to immigrants, on the one hand, and the maintenance of a robust welfare state. In this paper, however, we argue that claims about an inevitable trade-off between diversity and solidarity are premature. The evidence to date, and our own research, shows that a multicultural welfare state is a viable prospect.only subscribers can see the full article

Services System and Social Citizenship Access

Articolo scritto da:

in the issue
Migration
The paper analyses the level of preparation of the local welfare system targeted at immigrants, focusing specifically on the social requirements of foreign citizens as well as the chance to achieve integration. On the basis of the experience acquired by the city council of Reggio Emilia, some characteristics of the intervention system aimed at the integration of immigrants are outlined.only subscribers can see the full article

Evolution of the Asylum Discipline in Italy: European Context and Future Scenarios

Articolo scritto da:

in the issue
Migration
The rise in flows of asylum seekers from the 90s onwards has led Europe to redefine the protection sanctioned in the post war years at the international level, adopting status recognition procedures which allow the principles/symbols to remain intact while modifying (or limiting) the contents. The legislative evolution in Italy follows the same pattern: while attempts to adopt a complete immigration and asylum act struggle to take off, in Italy the matter is partially regulated, in its procedural aspects, by the «Martelli Law», extensively reformed in 2002 with the «Bossi-Fini Law». The paper outlines the fundamental legislative passages, taking into consideration also the draft law under discussion in Parliament, the executory rule which requires approval for the coming into effect of modifications due to the «Bossi-Fini Law» on asylum, and the risks of unconstitutionality derived by the latent conflict between legitimate worries to curb clandestine immigration and the duty to protect those who flee from persecutions in their own country.only subscribers can see the full article
Keywords: Italy :: immigration :: asylum discipline :: Eu ::

The events at Rosarno: reasons and responses

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This essay analyses the events at Rosarno to identify the reasons and roots of the problems behind the revolt of the immigrant workers. The fundamental nucleus of these questions is the serious exploitation of workers and the marked social isolation in which these farm workers were living. Nevertheless, their living conditions and salaries were absolutely in line with those of immigrant farm-workers in other parts of Southern Italy. To prevent a repetition of these events, the institutions should take responsibility for the conditions of immigrant farm-workers, particularly seasonal ones.only subscribers can see the full article
Keywords: labour :: immigration :: farming :: exploitation :: revolt ::

Effects of Enlargement on Immigration and the Labour Market

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European migration policies face great challenges. After many years of mostly unregulated inflows of foreigners into the EU, it is time to take a new approach focusing on economic criteria and taking the new social and economic realities in the EU into account. The recruitment of «high potentials» must become a cornerstone of a new EU migration policy. With the eastward enlargement in sight, the union must agree on new migration regulations or quotas for the highly qualified from Eastern Europe. Closing the borders to the West for citizens of the new EU member states for up to another seven years - as the majority of member states plan to do - would result in a loss of important human capital needed to further strengthen the competitiveness of a larger EU in the world economy. only subscribers can see the full article

Regular and Hidden Precariousness - Foreign Workers in the Italian Labour Market

Articolo scritto da:

in the issue
Migration
Law No. 189/02 represented an opportunity for immigrant work to come out into the open and be regularised. It has been successful, well beyond the intentions of the promoters, as the measure was supposed to concentrate on service jobs but, instead, it also involved subordinate workers in enterprises (Law No.222/02). This legislative intervention allowed a more accurate assessment of how migrants workers, both regular and hidden, are now an essential and structural factor of a large part of the productive sector. Reflections on these matters are outlined in this paper, contributing to the development of the discussion on the issue by proposing a reinterpretation of different phases of migratory flows in our country and considering the various relationships between immigration and work precariousness in each period.only subscribers can see the full article

The Development of Economic Conditioning in International Migration

Articolo scritto da:

in the issue
Migration
The paper analyses and discusses how international migratory flows are conditioned by broader politico-economic dynamics. Neither poverty nor unemployment are sufficient conditions to understand migratory flows. Focus is placed on three types of economic conditions which can induce individuals to emigrate: structural conditions related to the types of relations determined by economic internationalisation in its various configurations (old colonial forms or recent neocolonial forms, particular types of relations as a result of current forms of economic globalisation); direct recruitment of immigrant workers by employers, or governments on their behalf, or through the immigrant network; trafficking of men, women and children in an increasing context of illegality.only subscribers can see the full article

Leading separate lives. Local exclusion policies for immigrants

Articolo scritto da:

in the issue
Populisms in Europe
In Italy, as in other countries of southern Europe, immigration in the last twenty years has found many opportunities in the labour market, both official and unofficial. More recently, however, the government has toughened its policies towards immigration, although in practice the implementation of the measures has been very different from the rhetoric, particularly on the key theme of unauthorized immigration. But there has also been an increase in local measures against immigrants, particularly in the regions of northern Italy, where immigrants are most integrated into the labour market and the urban texture: measures to limit access to benefits and social services to Italian citizens; extremely noisy campaigns to combat illegal immigration, to the point of encouraging tip-offs to the authorities and house-to-house checks; bans on the opening of places of worship by Muslims; and restrictive regulations for ethnic businesses. Often these measures are later revoked, whether because of the mobilization of pro-immigrant opinion, or intervention by the courts or other officials, but they help spread a climate of mistrust and ill-feeling. only subscribers can see the full article