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labour market

Regionalization and the Labour Market

Articolo scritto da:

in the issue
Europe and Regions
This essay examines the various phases in the development that has taken place over a decade in regional legislation on the labour market. It begins by considering the organisational and functional modernisation of labour services, a result of the administrative decentralisation of the late 1990s that implemented the so-called Bassanini Reform. But it was the constitutional reform of 2001, giving the Regions legislative power over «protection and safety in the workplace» that was, for some of them at least, the opportunity for rethinking the role of local administrations in overseeing the labour markets in their territory. Not only has there been a rethinking, more or less serious, of the oranisational and managerial model of the 1990s, but the Regions in particular, on the lookout as they are for areas of intervention that tend to be ignored by central government, have started to experiment new ways of encouraging «quality of work».only subscribers can see the full article

Young People and the Labour Market in Italy

Articolo scritto da:

in the issue
The Dispossessed
Young people find it much more difficult to enter the labour market in Italy than elsewhere. The long transition from school to work is accompanied by low employment levels, high unemployment, and a growing concentration of temporary jobs, with the risk of being permanently without tenure. The reforms of the last few decades have increased the flexibility of the labour market, above all encouraging short-term contracts, so as to make it easier for young people to find work. This has led to an increase in segmentation, with young people concentrated in temporary jobs. High youth unemployment was reduced up until the crisis, but at the cost of increased job uncertainty. The impact of the crisis on young people was particularly dramatic, because of the large number of short-term contracts. The worsening of the employment picture has eroded the feeble progress registered before the crisis, emphasizing the existing critical factors. Given the uncertain prospects of growth, the persisting difficulties young people experience in the transition to work risk producing worrying longterm effects.only subscribers can see the full article

Effects of Enlargement on Immigration and the Labour Market

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European migration policies face great challenges. After many years of mostly unregulated inflows of foreigners into the EU, it is time to take a new approach focusing on economic criteria and taking the new social and economic realities in the EU into account. The recruitment of «high potentials» must become a cornerstone of a new EU migration policy. With the eastward enlargement in sight, the union must agree on new migration regulations or quotas for the highly qualified from Eastern Europe. Closing the borders to the West for citizens of the new EU member states for up to another seven years - as the majority of member states plan to do - would result in a loss of important human capital needed to further strengthen the competitiveness of a larger EU in the world economy. only subscribers can see the full article

Reconcilement as a Key Element in the Construction of a New Welfare: a Case Study

Articolo scritto da:

in the issue
Times and Hours
From the analysis of current trends in female occupation and from the specific contradiction between the desire/necessity of women to enter the labour market, and the entire organisation of the market, stems the urgency to establish conciliation policies intended not as «corrective» downstream measures to allow women to conduct their triple roles as wives, mothers, workers but as innovative, transversal upstream policies as the crux of a new welfare. This thesis is supported in the paper through the analysis of a «case study» of a territorial coalition in the province of Arezzo and reference to recent European recommendations on the issue of reconciliation.only subscribers can see the full article

The difficult transition from employment regulation to welfare policies

Articolo scritto da:

in the issue
The Italian case
This article considers recent trends in labour market reforms in Italy. We critically review the reform approach adopted in recent years, mainly centred on marginal legislative reforms in employment contracts. The diffusion of flexible labour contracts, especially among the younger generations and women, together with a welfare system still based on employment seniority and job characteristics, have reinforced the segmentation of the Italian labour market and social inequalities. The absence of a negotiating strategy in introducing reforms has also increased social conflict. only subscribers can see the full article

Work and Inquality

Articolo scritto da:

in the issue
Working poor
The inequality that is created in the labour market explains a very high proportion of the overall inequality in disposable incomes. Starting from this observation, the article presents a summary of the characteristics of inequality in incomes from labour, partly with a view to verifying, in a perspective of inequality, if the functioning of this market complies with what is theorized in the main theoretical approaches, or if there are significant divergences, with potentially important consequences for the characteristics and acceptability of inequality as well as for the planning of more effective policies to combat it.only subscribers can see the full article

Family as a Central Issue in Social Research and Political Debate

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The issue of the family has taken on a new dimension in the political debate and in sociological research, given the impact its changing settings have produced on the welfare system and on its redefinition, as well as on labour market conditions. The article analyses the motiva-tions underlying this particular focus from the perspective of the social change involving relations within the family, those between family and labour market and lastly between family and welfare settings. The author assumes a critical sociological standpoint to avoid the risks of redundancy that the sociological analysis is exposed to when guided by policy requirements providing exclusively descriptive and exces-sively simplistic perspectives. However, it is now important to ask new questions and develop new theoretical and methodological approaches.only subscribers can see the full article

The segmentation of the labour market during a period of crisis: a comparative perspective on the case of Italy

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This essay analyses the differences between workers with permanent and temporary contracts in both Italy and other countries of the EU-15, partly in the light of the present crisis that may have worsened the disadvantage of those working with fixed-term contracts by reducing the possibility to renew their contracts. The presence of inequalities between the two types of worker and the consequent forms of segmentation is evaluated both statically, verifying the existence of wage differentials, and dynamically, using transition matrixes to observe how long subjects remain at disadvantageous levels. Finally, in the light of the recent debate on social benefits and flexicurity and the main empirical evidence, it offers some thoughts on the most suitable policies for facing the problems in Italy.only subscribers can see the full article

Labour Market and Professionalization of the Care and Health System in Italy

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This article presents and discusses some characteristic features of welfare work in Italy, to try and understand better some of the challenges that the welfare system is facing today and, still more, will be facing in the near future. To deal with this subject synthetically, I propose to start from two central elements in the development of the Italian labour market in this field. The first, in the social field, is that of the unofficial «carers», that is, the private care work provided mainly by immigrant women to old people who are not self-sufficient and to the disabled. The second, in the health field, is that of the acceleration of the professionalisation process in the last ten years. These two phenomena will involve discussion of the labour market, regulation of the professions and professionalism. only subscribers can see the full article

The Working Poor. A Review of Sociological Studies

Articolo scritto da:

in the issue
Working poor
The article offers to describe the main lines of the question of the working poor, dealing with some interpretations, identifying different perspectives and drawing attention to some important elements of analysis chosen from the literature on the subject. The research examined shows the complexity and multidimensional nature of the phenomenon. It is the co-presence of several risk factors, at micro and macro level, that generates working poverty both directly and indirectly. Finally, the article argues for the social significance and great relevance of the subject and suggests it be made a specific object of empirical research.only subscribers can see the full article
Keywords: labour market :: poverty :: vulnerability ::