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Rps 2 2017

È disponibile online il numero 2/2017 di Rps. Il fascicolo dedica la sezione monografica al welfare occupazionale. Nella sezione Attualità si discute di diseguaglianze di salute.

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Income Support for Poor Workers, from the Point of View of Efficiency

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in the issue
Working poor
This article is a contribution to the literature studying the possible tools for combating poverty. After tracing the main lines of «Making work pay» (Mwp) schemes, there is an analysis of the main features of Earned income tax credit (Eitc). The aim is to clarify how Eitc, which aims to redistribute wealth, also determines responses from economic agents that have a strong effect on efficiency. The work brings out how, on the basis of the theory of optimum taxation, the Mwp schemes can have effects in terms of efficiency in two different ways. The first concerns the risks linked to the creation of inefficiency traps (inactivity, unemployment, poverty), while the second concerns the contrasting effects of Eitc in relation to the extensive margin (being part of the labour market or not) and the intensive margin (variation in hours worked). The possibility of being able to reconcile redistribution and efficiency is still an open debate, useful for guiding the preparation of optimum policies of income support.only subscribers can see the full article

Trend in Safety Net Mechanism. A European Overview

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The paper gives a brief overview of safety net mechanisms in Eu countries (before enlargement), outlining eligibility conditions after social protection adjustments and reforms in the 90s and the current trends in the activation of minimum income beneficiaries. By analysing the policies of European states, there emerges a prevalent model which foresees the activation of the beneficiaries of safety net mechanisms with rigid access/exclusion conditions. The excessive use of restrictive, conditional tools risks the re-emergence of the idea of «culpable» poverty, hence undermining the achievements of social inclusion policies.only subscribers can see the full article

The Impact of the Crisis on Foreign Workers. Returning Migrations in Campania

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The article analyses «returning» internal migrations of immigrants in Italy, particularly towards the region of Campania. In the past this region had the dual role of a transit area and a stabilization area, but it is now becoming the main destination of immigrants who lose their jobs as a result of the crisis. In particular, the essay examines the impact these new internal flows have on social cohesion both in the regions being left and in the job market in Campania. Interviews with direct witnesses and immigrants reconstruct the processes of skidding and impoverishment in the context of the crisis of the Neapolitan model of survival, which had previously been able, however unsatisfactorily, to receive even those immigrants in the most desperate conditions.only subscribers can see the full article

Family Support Mechanism and the Fight Against Poverty. Reform Hypotheses - I

This paper proposes a reform of family allowance to combat poverty, coherent with the vision of human development welfare and the tradition of selective universalism of the Onofri Commission. The main contents of the reform are: a) Unification of the main tax deductions for minors and spending in the form of family allowances in a new and more effective spending measure to support families which resolves the problem of the incapacity of tax deductions. b) The full-scale introduction of the Minimum Income Mechanism whose experimentation had been initiated (but only to be interrupted). c) The reform of current selectivity criteria, especially the Ise tool. This reform aims to achieve better redistribution objectives than the current ones, concentrating available resources on families with minors and medium to low Ise. It should be maintained a certain level of selectivity in the interventions on the basis of family not individual criteria. The reform will also use any eventual additional resources to cover all urgent needs of our welfare systems rather than universalistic monetary redistribution.only subscribers can see the full article

The Basic Income as a Tool for Intervening on Inequality, Poverty and the Fragmentation of the Jobs Market

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The Basic Income is a political idea of income support that can take the form of redistributive welfare aid, or can be conceived as a tool to fight poverty or, finally, can be seen as an instrument of guarantee for the increasing impoverishment and fragmentation of large segments of the labour market. Except for Greece and Italy, all the Eu countries have initiated Basic Income policies, but almost all are conditioned by active policies for bringing people into the labour market. In Italy, the experimental Minimum Income of Insertion (1998) was soon abandoned but the state has expanded the range of beneficiaries of social welfare and unemployment benefits. Little has been done at regional and municipal level yet, and depends on the availability of resources, but it still confirms there is a desire to explore this route.only subscribers can see the full article
Keywords: poverty :: Basic Income ::

After the Transition: Poverty, Inequalities and Welfare System in Eastern Europe

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Poverty in post communist countries of Eastern Europe is the result not only of the transition to a market economy but also the rise to power of a new incapable and corrupt ruling class, the political priorities of governments and incoherent social policy measures. The most evident consequences of this transformation is a growth in poverty and income disparity. In fact there are great national and sub-regional differences. The situation is particularly critical in the Community of Independent States and in the south-eastern European countries, whereas it is less so in Central-Eastern Europe. Measures to reduce poverty have turned out to be inefficient and ineffective even if tailored to a definite target and means tested. Most reforms on welfare have been concentrated on pensions. With impending EU enlargement, increasingly greater influence must be yielded by the European social model or the strategy proposed by the World Bank. The central point seems to pivot on the matter of what political, social, institutional subject can initiate a broader reform of the welfare state.only subscribers can see the full article

Lisbon, open Method of Coordination, Eu2020: 10 Years of Social Indicators in the European Union

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The European Council has recently adopted «Europe 2020», the ambitious strategy for «smart, sustainable, inclusive growth» that will direct the action of the community and member countries in the fields of economic, employment, environmental and social policies over the next decade. Quantitative targets – five in all – play a fundamental role in it, and countries must commit themselves to reaching them by 2020 through concrete policy actions. One of the five targets concerns an indicator of poverty and social exclusion, and is fixed in absolute terms: 20 million people outside the poverty area in ten years. It is the conclusion of a long journey begun in Lisbon in 2000, when in the new community coordination of social policies, the indicators were at once considered fundamental ingredients of the process, the aim being to make the outcomes of the interventions more transparent and to compare more easily government action in the different countries and the time taken. The article recalls the fundamental stages in this journey.only subscribers can see the full article

Family Support Mechanism and the Fight Against Poverty. Reform Hypotheses - II

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Given shortcomings in present low income support measures, possible reforms are presented. The underlying consideration is to implement a joint reform of Irpef and family benefits by introducing tax cuts and benefits for minors regardless of income, and additional measures such as income transfer (negative taxation) in the case of fiscal incapacity; more progressivity of Irpef to obtain the necessary resources from high income earners to finance allowances and tax deductions. The redistributive effects of this reform are highlighted in favour of low and medium income families and the possibility to support young people by funding incentives to enable their entry to the labour market.only subscribers can see the full article

Social work and overcoming child poverty

The increasing poverty of families also affects the poverty of many children. Given the dramatic nature of the statistics, the survey focuses on who they are, how they live, their main needs, why intervention is often so slow, and why the youngest are the most disadvantaged (0-3). Social workers who face these issues every day have explained to us how they can help children, what is helpful and what is not, what is provided and what is not provided, if and how to combine money transfers and services, how the lack of integration can create operational gaps, and if and how training can improve their service. The results are valuable because they come from direct knowledge of the problems, from their professional experience, and from the utility of their action despite limited resources and organizational dysfunctions.only subscribers can see the full article
Keywords: social work :: poverty :: children ::

Europe 2020. Policies against Poverty and Exclusion in the European Strategy for the Next Decade

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The European Union’s new strategy, Europe 2020, offers an integrated and innovative response to the economic and social challenges that the economic crisis has highlighted or worsened. Proposed and adopted during the European Year for Combating Poverty and Social Exclusion, Europe 2020 places the reduction of poverty and exclusion as one of the Union’s priorities and defines a quantitative aim to be reached before the end of the decade. To support this commitment and make it credible, the European Commission has proposed a flagship initiative, the European Platform to Combat Poverty and Social Exclusion, one of whose tasks will be to appeal to social innovation to find adequate responses to social risks old and new. only subscribers can see the full article